References, conversions, facts and links

1. Temperature conversion

When converting temperatures from one scale to another (Celsius, Fahrenheit, etc.), make sure to first check if they are anomalies.

To convert a temperature measurement, go to

However, when converting a temperature anomaly, i.e. a RISE or FALL compared to a long-term average, go to

2. Sources

Sea surface temperature anomaly

Sea ice volume

Methane levels

Sea surface temperatures and anomalies

Temperature, wind, more

Arctic sea ice

Key pages of things to watch
• PIOMAS VOLUME - ArctischePinguin
• PIOMAS graphs
• PIOMAS VOLUME - University of Washington
PIOMAS Sea Ice volume
• Arctic Sea Ice Graphs
• Sea ice concentration maps (July 1st 2005-2012)
• Long-term graphs
• Arctic Sea Ice Blog
• Italian site:

• Jason Box blog
• NSIDC Greenland Ice Sheet

Wildfires and smoke
• Wunderground
• NASA satellite

3. Units of measurement

WEIGHT: How much is one Gt, or one Pg? Below is a table comparing different units of measurement.

Units of measurement
(tonnes versus grams)
Multiple  NameSymbol
  English           Multiple (SI)Name (SI)Symbol (SI)English(SI)
                                   100gramg  gram
                                    103kilogramKg  thousand g 
 100tonne     t1 tonne                    106megagramMg  million g 
 103kilotonne    kt1 thousand tonnes    109gigagramGg  billion g 
 106megatonne    Mt1 million tonnes        1012teragramT  trillion g 
 109gigatonne    Gt1 billion tonnes         1015petagramPg  quadrillion g
   1012teratonne    Tt1 trillion tonnes         1018exagramEgquintillion g
   1015petatonne    Pt1 quadrillion tonnes   1021zettagramZgsextillion g
   1018exatonne    Et1 quintillion tonnes    1024yottagramYgseptillion g

From: Sam Carana
See below for an image of above table, from:
See also:
Below is an image converting different units of measurement, i.e. tonne and gram.

ALTITUDE: The conversion table below shows the altitude equivalents in feet, m and mb.
57,016 feet44,690 feet36,850 feet30,570 feet25,544 feet19,820 feet14,385 feet 8,368 feet1,916 feet
17,378 m13,621 m11,232 m  9,318 m  7,786 m  6,041 m  4,384 m 2,551 m   584 m
      74 mb    147 mb    218 mb     293 mb     367 mb     469 mb     586 mb    742 mb   945 mb

Below is the conversion table as an image:

4. Symbols, acronyms and abbreviations

AMM    Arctic Methane Management (see below)
BC black carbon (or soot)
C Carbon
CDR Carbon Dioxide Removal
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CH4 methane (or natural gas) CH₄
CO carbon monoxide
CO2 carbon dioxide CO₂
EMD Enhanced Methane Decomposition (see below)
EV electric vehicle
HFC hydrofluorocarbon also known as freon, with the subclass HCFC
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon
H2O2 HOOH or hydrogen peroxide H₂O₂ 
NO nitrogen monoxide (commonly known as nitric oxide)
NO2 nitrogen dioxide NO₂
NOX nitrogen oxides (NO and NO₂, which cause O₃, smog and acid rain)
N2O nitrous oxide N₂O 
O3 ozone  O₃
OH hydroxyl
PFC perfluorocarbon
SF6 sulphur hexafluoride SF₆
SRM Solar Radiation Management
OC volatile organic compound include CFCs, styrenelimonene and formaldehyde
WWS WWS energy or Wind, Water and Solar Energy (water includes hydro, wave, tidal and geothermal)
fractions       1½ 1⅓ 1⅔ 1¾ ½ ⅔ ¼ ¾ ⅕ ⅖ ⅗ ⅘ ⅙ ⅚ ⅛ ⅜ ⅝ ⅞ % ‰ ‱
degree          °C °F °
distance       km²
surface         km³
exponent      1¹ 1² 1³ 1⁴ 1⁵ 1⁶ 1⁷ 1⁸ 1⁹ 1¹⁰
about            ≈ ±
symbols       Æ, Ø, Å and ß ⍺ ⍵ Π
line              ━ _ - = ═
root             √ ∛ ∜
commas       ‘ ’ ‚ “ ” „ ‘ ’ “ ”
bulletpoints  • 
at                 @ @
emoticons  ☺ ♡ ♥
check mark ✓
arrows        ➛ ← →
star             ⋆ * ❋ ⁎
chemical     O₁ O₂ O₃ O₄ O₅ O₆ O₇ O₈ O₉ O₁₀

From: Comprehensive Plan of Action - Sam Carana
see also:

5. Wedges and proposed remediation methods

1. Climate ChangeCDR: biochar, carbon air capture, enhanced weathering, algae bags, EVs, renewable energy, clean cooking & heating, LEDs, etc.
SRM: surface and cloud brightening, release of aerosols
AMM: methane capture, release of oxygen and diatoms, wetland management, river diversion, EMD (enhanced methane decomposition)
2. Ocean acidificationenhanced weathering
3. Stratospheric ozone depletionoxygen release
4. Nitrogen & Phosphorus Cyclesalgae bags, biochar, enhanced weathering
5. Global freshwater usedesalination, biochar, enhanced weathering
6. Change in land usedesalination, biochar, enhanced weathering
7. Biodiversity lossdesalination, biochar, enhanced weathering
8. Atmospheric aerosol loadingbiochar, EVs, renewable energy, clean cooking & heating, LEDs, etc. 
9. Chemical pollutionrecycling, waste management (separation)

From: Policy proposals to most effectively shift towards a more sustainable economy

6. Keywords and phrases

Biochar  -  Biochar
Biomass  -  Biomass
Carbon Air Capture, Algae Bags  -  Carbon Air Capture and Algae Bags
Carbon-negative building  -  Carbon-negative building
Desalination  -  Desalination
Diatoms  -  Wetland management and release of diatoms
Enhanced weathering  -  Enhanced weathering
Ozone  -  Ozone hole recovery

From: Policy proposals to most effectively shift towards a more sustainable economy 

7. Links to Tools

• GIFs to MP4

• conversion of measurements

• edit images

• bend text

• symbols

• convert from capitals to lower case, character count, word count, etc.

• superscript generator

• word count, etc.

• strip HTML and formatting from text

• animations

• image maps

8. Links to Key Policy Posts

Climate Plan

The Threat

The Mechanism






The Duty To Act

The way back to 280 ppm

A. Protocols, standards and deposit programs
A national bottle recycling bill
Green Refrigerators and Air Conditioners

B. Fees on nitrogen fertilizers and livestock products, funding biochar
Afforestation - bringing life into the deserts
Save the Rainforest
Fees on Livestock to fund Biochar

C. Clean energy through fees on burning fuel, with revenues funding clean local energy programs
Electric Vehicles - Frequently Asked Questions
SuperB Grid

D. Geoengineering
The Threat of Methane Release from Permafrost and Clathrates
Funding of Carbon Air Capture
Open letter on Arctic sea ice loss

E. Organic waste handling standards
Algae Bags

Feebate policies
Proposals to most effectively shift to a more sustainable economy

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