References, conversions, facts and links

1. Temperature conversion

When converting temperatures from one scale to another (Celsius, Fahrenheit, etc.), make sure to first check if they are anomalies.

To convert a temperature measurement, go to

However, when converting a temperature anomaly, i.e. a RISE or FALL compared to a long-term average, go to

2. Sources

Sea surface temperature anomaly

Sea ice volume

Sea surface temperature anomaly

Surface wind

Methane levels

Sea surface temperatures and anomalies

Temperature, wind, more

Arctic sea ice

Key pages of things to watch
- PIOMAS VOLUME - ArctischePinguin
- PIOMAS graphs
- PIOMAS VOLUME - University of Washington
PIOMAS Sea Ice volume
- Arctic Sea Ice Graphs
- Sea ice concentration maps (July 1st 2005-2012)
- Long-term graphs
- Arctic Sea Ice Blog
- Italian site:

- Jason Box blog
- NSIDC Greenland Ice Sheet

Wildfires and smoke
- Wunderground
- NASA satellite

3. Units of measurement

How much is one Gt, or one Pg? Below is a table comparing different units of measurement.

Units of measurement
(tonnes versus grams)
Multiple  NameSymbol
  English           Multiple (SI)Name (SI)Symbol (SI)English(SI)
                                   100gramg  gram
                                    103kilogramKg  thousand g 
 100tonne     t1 tonne                    106megagramMg  million g 
 103kilotonne    kt1 thousand tonnes    109gigagramGg  billion g 
 106megatonne    Mt1 million tonnes        1012teragramT  trillion g 
 109gigatonne    Gt1 billion tonnes         1015petagramPg  quadrillion g
   1012teratonne    Tt1 trillion tonnes         1018exagramEgquintillion g
   1015petatonne    Pt1 quadrillion tonnes   1021zettagramZgsextillion g
   1018exatonne    Et1 quintillion tonnes    1024yottagramYgseptillion g

From: Sam Carana
For an image of above table, see
See also:

4. Acronyms and Abbreviations

AMM    Arctic Methane Management (see below)
BC black carbon (or soot)
C Carbon
CDR Carbon Dioxide Removal
CFC chlorofluorocarbon
CH4 methane (or natural gas)
CO carbon monoxide
CO2 carbon dioxide
EMD Enhanced Methane Decomposition (see below)
EV electric vehicle
HFC hydrofluorocarbon also known as freon, with the subclass HCFC
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon
H2O2 HOOH or hydrogen peroxide
NO nitrogen monoxide (commonly known as nitric oxide)
NO2 nitrogen dioxide
NOX nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, which cause O3, smog and acid rain)
N2O nitrous oxide
O3 ozone
OH hydroxyl
PFC perfluorocarbon
SF6 sulphur hexafluoride
SRM Solar Radiation Management
OC volatile organic compound include CFCs, styrenelimonene and formaldehyde
WWS WWS energy or Wind, Water and Solar Energy (water includes hydro, wave, tidal and geothermal)

From: Comprehensive Plan of Action - Sam Carana

5. Wedges and proposed remediation methods

1. Climate ChangeCDR: biochar, carbon air capture, enhanced weathering, algae bags, EVs, renewable energy, clean cooking & heating, LEDs, etc.
SRM: surface and cloud brightening, release of aerosols
AMM: methane capture, release of oxygen and diatoms, wetland management, river diversion, EMD (enhanced methane decomposition)
2. Ocean acidificationenhanced weathering
3. Stratospheric ozone depletionoxygen release
4. Nitrogen & Phosphorus Cyclesalgae bags, biochar, enhanced weathering
5. Global freshwater usedesalination, biochar, enhanced weathering
6. Change in land usedesalination, biochar, enhanced weathering
7. Biodiversity lossdesalination, biochar, enhanced weathering
8. Atmospheric aerosol loadingbiochar, EVs, renewable energy, clean cooking & heating, LEDs, etc. 
9. Chemical pollutionrecycling, waste management (separation)

From: Policy proposals to most effectively shift towards a more sustainable economy

6. Keywords and phrases

Biochar  -  Biochar
Biomass  -  Biomass
Carbon Air Capture, Algae Bags  -  Carbon Air Capture and Algae Bags
Carbon-negative building  -  Carbon-negative building
Desalination  -  Desalination
Diatoms  -  Wetland management and release of diatoms
Enhanced weathering  -  Enhanced weathering
Ozone  -  Ozone hole recovery

From: Policy proposals to most effectively shift towards a more sustainable economy 

7. Links to Tools

- GIFs to MP4

- conversion of measurements

- edit images

- bend text

- animations

- image maps

8. Links to Key Policy Posts

Climate Plan
Ten Dangers of Global Warming
The way back to 280 ppm

A. Protocols, standards and deposit programs
A national bottle recycling bill
Green Refrigerators and Air Conditioners

B. Fees on nitrogen fertilizers and livestock products, funding biochar
Afforestation - bringing life into the deserts
Save the Rainforest
Fees on Livestock to fund Biochar

C. Clean energy through fees on burning fuel, with revenues funding clean local energy programs
Electric Vehicles - Frequently Asked Questions
SuperB Grid

D. Geoengineering
The Threat of Methane Release from Permafrost and Clathrates
Funding of Carbon Air Capture
Open letter on Arctic sea ice loss

E. Organic waste handling standards
Algae Bags

Feebate policies
Proposals to most effectively shift to a more sustainable economy

1 comment:

  1. The Climate Plan calls for comprehensive action through multiple lines of action implemented across the world and in parallel, through effective policies such as local feebates. The Climate Plan calls for a global commitment to act, combined with implementation that is preferably local. In other words, while the Climate Plan calls for a global commitment to take comprehensive and effective action to reduce the danger of catastrophic climate change, and while it recommends specific policies and approaches how best to achieve this, it invites local communities to decide what each works best for them, provided they do indeed make the progress necessary to reach agreed targets. This makes that the Climate Plan optimizes flexibility for local communities and optimizes local job and investment opportunities.

    Click for more on multiple lines of action, on recommended policies, and on the advantages of feebates.